Furniture In England.
England under Henry the Eighth was peaceful
and prosperous, and the King was ambitious to outvie his French
contemporary, Francois I., in the sumptuousness of his palaces. John of
Padua, Holbein, Havernius of Cleves, and other artists, were induced to come
to England and to introduce the new style. It, however, was of slow growth,
and we have in the mixture of Gothic, Italian and Flemish ornament, the
style which is known as "Tudor."
It has been well said that "Feudalism was
ruined by gunpowder." The old-fashioned feudal castle was no longer proof
against cannon, and with the new order of things, threatening walls and
serried battlements gave way as if by magic to the pomp and grace of the
Italian mansion. High roofed gables, rows of windows and glittering oriels
looking down on terraced gardens, with vases and fountains, mark the new
Carved Oak Chest in the Style of Holbein.
The joiner's work played a very important
part in the interior decoration of the castles and country seats of this
time, and the roofs were magnificently timbered with native oak, which was
available in longer lengths than that of foreign growth. The Great Hall in
Hampton Court Palace, which was built by Cardinal Wolsey and presented to
his master, the halls of Oxford, and many other public buildings which
remain to us, are examples of fine woodwork in the roofs. Oak panelling was
largely used to line the walls of the great halls, the "linen scroll
pattern" being a favorite form of ornament. This term describes a panel
carved to represent a napkin folded in close convolutions, and appears to
have been adopted from German work; specimens of this can be seen at Hampton
Court, and in old churches decorated in the early part of the sixteenth
century. There is also some fine panelling of this date in King's College,
In this class of work, which accompanied the
style known in architecture as the "Perpendicular," some of the finest
specimens of oak ornamented interiors are to be found, that of the roof and
choir stalls in the beautiful Chapel of Henry VII. in Westminster Abbey,
being world famous. The carved enrichments of the under part of the seats,
or "misericords," are especially minute, the subjects apparently being taken
from old German engravings. This work was done in England before
architecture and wood carving had altogether flung aside their Gothic
trammels, and shews an admixture of the new Italian style which was
afterwards so generally adopted.
There are in the British Museum some
interesting records of contracts made in the ninth year of Henry VIII.'s
reign for joyner's work at Hengrave, in which the making of 'livery' or
service cupboards is specified.
"Ye cobards they be made ye facyon of
livery y is w'thout doors."
These were fitted up by the ordinary house
carpenters, and consisted of three stages or shelves standing on four turned
legs, with a drawer for table linen. They were at this period not enclosed,
but the mugs or drinking vessels were hung on hooks, and were taken down and
replaced after use; a ewer and basin was also part of the complement of a
livery cupboard, for cleansing these cups. In Harrison's description of
England in the latter part of the sixteenth century the custom is thus
"Each one as necessitie urgeth, calleth for a
cup of such drinke as him liketh, so when he hath tasted it, he delivereth
the cup again to some one of the standers by, who maketh it clean by pouring
out the drinke that remaineth, restoreth it to the cupboard from whence he
fetched the same."
It must be borne in mind, in considering the
furniture of the earlier part of the sixteenth century, that the religious
persecutions of the time, together with the general break-up of the feudal
system, had gradually brought about the disuse of the old custom of the
master of the house taking his meals in the large hall or "houseplace,"
together with his retainers and dependants; and a smaller room leading from
the great hall was fitted up with a dressoir or service cupboard, for the
drinking vessels in the manner just described, with a bedstead, and a chair,
some benches, and the board on trestles, which formed the table of the
period. This room, called a "parler" or "privée parloir," was the part of
the house where the family enjoyed domestic life, and it is a singular fact
that the Clerics of the time, and also the Court party, saw in this tendency
towards private life so grave an objection that, in 1526, this change in
fashion was the subject of a court ordinance, and also of a special Pastoral
from Bishop Grosbeste. The text runs thus: "Sundrie noblemen and gentlemen
and others doe much delighte to dyne in corners and secret places," and the
reason given, was that it was a bad influence, dividing class from class;
the real reason was probably that by more private and domestic life, the
power of the Church over her members was weakened.
Chair Said To Have Belonged to Anna Boleyn,
Hever Castle. (From the Collection of Mr. Godwin, F.S.A.)
In spite, however, of opposition in high
places, the custom of using the smaller rooms became more common, and we
shall find the furniture, as time goes on, designed accordingly.
Tudor Cabinet in the South Kensington Museum.
In the South Kensington Museum there is a
very remarkable cabinet, the decoration of which points to its being made in
England at this time, that is, about the middle, or during the latter half,
of the sixteenth century, but the highly finished and intricate marqueterie
and carving would seem to prove that Italian or German craftsmen had
executed the work. It should be carefully examined as a very interesting
specimen. The Tudor arms, the rose and portcullis, are inlaid on the stand.
The arched panels in the folding doors, and at the ends of the cabinet are
in high relief, representing battle scenes, and bear some resemblance to
Holbein's style. The general arrangement of the design reminds one of a
Roman triumphal arch. The woods employed are chiefly pear tree, inlaid with
coromandel and other woods. Its height is 4 ft. 7 in. and width 3 ft. 1 in.,
but there is in it an immense amount of careful detail which could only be
the work of the most skilful craftsmen of the day, and it was evidently
intended for a room of moderate dimensions where the intricacies of design
could be observed. Mr. Hungerford Pollen has described this cabinet fully,
giving the subjects of the ornament, the Latin mottoes and inscriptions, and
other details, which occupy over four closely printed pages of his museum
catalogue. It cost the nation £500, and was an exceedingly judicious
Chairs were during the first half of the
sixteenth century very scarce articles, and as we have seen with other
countries, only used for the master or mistress of the house. The chair
which is said to have belonged to Anna Boleyn, of which an illustration is
given on p. 74, is from the collection of the late Mr. Geo. Godwin, F.S.A.,
formerly editor of "The Builder," and was part of the contents of
Hever Castle, in Kent. It is of carved oak, inlaid with ebony and boxwood,
and was probably made by an Italian workman. Settles were largely used, and
both these and such chairs as then existed, were dependent, for richness of
effect, upon the loose cushions with which they were furnished.
If we attempt to gain a knowledge of the
designs of the tables of the sixteenth, and early part of the seventeenth
centuries, from interiors represented in paintings of this period, the visit
to the picture gallery will be almost in vain, for in nearly every case the
table is covered by a cloth. As these cloths or carpets, as they were then
termed, to distinguish them from the "tapet" or floor covering, often cost
far more than the articles they covered, a word about them may be allowed.
Most of the old inventories from 1590, after
mentioning the "framed" or "joyned" table, name the "carpett of Turky werke"
which covered it, and in many cases there was still another covering to
protect the best one, and when Frederick, Duke of Wurtemburg, visited
England in 1592 he noted a very extravagant "carpett" at Hampton Court,
which was embroidered with pearls and cost 50,000 crowns.
The cushions or "quysshens" for the chairs,
of embroidered velvet, were also very important appendages to the otherwise
hard oaken and ebony seats, and as the actual date of the will of Alderman
Glasseor quoted below is 1589, we may gather from the extract given,
something of the character and value of these ornamental accessories which
would probably have been in use for some five and twenty or thirty years
"Inventory of the contents of the parler of
St. Jone's, within the cittie of Chester," of which place Alderman Glasseor
"A drawinge table of joyned work with a
frame," valued at "xl shillings," equilius Labour £20 your present money.
Two formes covered with Turkey work to the
same belonginge. xiij shillings and iiij pence
A joyned frame xvjd.
A bord ijs. vjd.
A little side table upon a frame ijs.
A pair of virginalls with the frame xxxs.
Sixe joyned stooles covr'd with nedle werke
Sixe other joyned stooles vjs.
One cheare of nedle worke iijs. iiijd.
Two little fote stooles iiijd.
One longe carpett of Turky werke vili.
A shortte carpett of the same werke xiijs.
One cupbord carpett of the same xs.
Sixe quysshens of Turkye xijs.
Sixe quysshens of tapestree xxs.
And others of velvet "embroidered wt gold
and silver armes in the middesle."
Eight pictures xls. Maps, a pedigree of
Earl Leicester in "joyned frame" and a list of books.
This Alderman Glasseor was apparently a man
of taste and culture for those days; he had "casting bottles" of silver for
sprinkling perfumes after dinner, and he also had a country house "at the
sea," where his parlour was furnished with "a canapy bedd."
As the century advances, and we get well into
Elizabeth's reign, wood carving becomes more ambitious, and although it is
impossible to distinguish the work of Flemish carvers who had settled in
England from that of our native craftsmen, these doubtless acquired from the
former much of their skill. In the costumes and in the faces of figures or
busts, produced in the highly ornamental oak chimney pieces of the time, or
in the carved portions of the fourpost bedsteads, the national
characteristics are preserved, and, with a certain grotesqueness introduced
into the treatment of accessories, combine to distinguish the English school
of Elizabethan ornament from other contemporary work.
Knole, Longleaf, Burleigh, Hatfield,
Hardwick, and Audley End are familiar instances of the change in interior
decoration which accompanied that in architecture; terminal figures, that
is, pedestals diminishing towards their bases, surmounted by busts of men or
women, elaborate interlaced strap work carved in low relief, trophies of
fruit and flowers, take the places of the more Gothic treatment formerly in
vogue. The change in the design of furniture naturally followed, for in
cases where Flemish or Italian carvers were not employed, the actual
execution was often by the hand of the house carpenter, who was influenced
by what he saw around him.
The great chimney piece in Speke Hall, near
Liverpool, portions of the staircase of Hatfield, and of other English
mansions before mentioned, are good examples of the wood carving of this
period, and the illustrations from authenticated examples which are given,
will assist the reader to follow these remarks.
The Glastonbury Chair. (In the Palace of
the Bishop of Bath, and Wells.)
There is a mirror frame at Goodrich Court of
early Elizabethan work, carved in oak and partly gilt; the design is in the
best style of Renaissance and more like Italian or French work than English.
Architectural mouldings, wreaths of flowers, cupids, and an allegorical
figure of Faith are harmoniously combined in the design, the size of the
whole frame being 4 ft. 5 ins. by 3 ft. 6 ins. It bears the date 1559 and
initials R. M.; this was the year in which Roland Meyrick became Bishop of
Bangor, and it is still in the possession of the Meyrick family. A careful
drawing of this frame was made by Henry Shaw, F.S.A., and published in
"Specimens of Ancient Furniture drawn from existing Authorities," in 1836.
This valuable work of reference also contains finished drawings of other
noteworthy examples of the sixteenth century furniture and woodwork. Amongst
these is one of the Abbot's chair at Glastonbury, temp. Henry VIII., the
original of the chair familiar to us now in the chancel of most churches;
also a chair in the state-room of Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire, covered with
crimson velvet embroidered with silver tissue, and others, very interesting
to refer to because the illustrations are all drawn from the articles
themselves, and their descriptions are written by an excellent antiquarian
and collector, Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick.
The mirror frame, described above, was
probably one of the first of its size and kind in England. It was the
custom, as has been already stated, to paint the walls with subjects from
history or Scripture, and there are many precepts in existence from early
times until about the beginning of Henry VIII.'s reign, directing how
certain walls were to be decorated. The discontinuance of this fashion
brought about the framing of pictures, and some of the paintings by Holbein,
who came to this country about 1511, and received the patronage of Henry
VIII. some fourteen or fifteen years later, are probably the first pictures
that were framed in England. There are some two or three of these at Hampton
Court Palace, the ornament being a scroll in gold on a black background, the
width of the frame very small in comparison with its canvas. Some of the old
wall paintings had been on a small scale, and, where long stories were
represented, the subjects instead of occupying the whole flank of the wall,
had been divided into rows some three feet or less in height, these being
separated by battens, and therefore the first frames would appear to be
really little more than the addition of vertical sides to the horizontal top
and bottom which such battens had formed. Subsequently, frames became more
ornate and elaborate. After their application to pictures, their use for
mirrors was but a step in advance, and the mirror in a carved and gilt or
decorated frame, probably at first imported and afterwards copied, came to
replace the older mirror of very small dimensions for toilet use.
Until early in the fifteenth century, mirrors
of polished steel in the antique style, framed in silver and ivory, had been
used; in the wardrobe account of Edward I. the item occurs, "A comb and a
mirror of silver gilt," and we have an extract from the privy purse of
expenses of Henry VIII. which mentions the payment "to a Frenchman for
certayne loking glasses," which would probably be a novelty then brought to
his Majesty's notice.
Indeed, there was no glass used for windows8
previous to the fifteenth century, the substitute being shaved horn,
parchment, and sometimes mica, let into the shutters which enclosed the
The oak panelling of rooms during the reign
of Elizabeth was very handsome, and in the example at South Kensington, of
which there is here an illustration, the country possesses a very excellent
representative specimen. This was removed from an old house at Exeter, and
its date is given by Mr. Hungerford Pollen as from 1550-75. The pilasters
and carved panels under the cornice are very rich and in the best style of
Elizabethan Renaissance, while the panels themselves, being plain, afford
repose, and bring the ornament into relief. The entire length is 52 ft. and
average height 8 ft. 3 in. If this panelling could be arranged as it was
fitted originally in the house of one of Elizabeth's subjects, with models
of fireplace, moulded ceiling, and accessories added, we should then have an
object lesson of value, and be able to picture a Drake or a Raleigh in his
West of England home.
Carved Oak Elizabethan Bedstead.
A later purchase by the Science and Art
Department, which was only secured last year for the extremely moderate
price of £1,000, is the panelling of a room some 23 ft. square and 12 ft. 6
in. high, from Sizergh Castle, Westmoreland. The chimney piece was
unfortunately not purchased, but the Department has arranged the panelling
as a room with a plaster model of the extremely handsome ceiling. The
panelling is of richly figured oak, entirely devoid of polish, and is inlaid
with black bog oak and holly, in geometrical designs, being divided at
intervals by tall pilasters fluted with bog oak and having Ionic capitals.
The work was probably done locally, and from wood grown on the estate, and
is one of the most remarkable examples in existence. The date is about 1560
to 1570, and it has been described in local literature of nearly 200 years
Oak Wainscoting, From an old house in Exeter.
S. Kensington Museum. Period: English Renaissance (About 1550-75).
While we are on the subject of panelling, it
may be worth while to point out that with regard to old English work of this
date, one may safely take it for granted that where, as in the South
Kensington (Exeter) example, the pilasters, frieze, and frame-work are
enriched, and the panels plain, the work was designed and made for the
house, but, when the panels are carved and the rest plain, they were bought,
and then fitted up by the local carpenter.
Another Museum specimen of Elizabethan carved
oak is a fourpost bedstead, with the arms of the Countess of Devon, which
bears date 1593, and has all the characteristics of the time.
There is also a good example of Elizabethan
woodwork in part of the interior of the Charterhouse, immortalised by
Thackeray, when, as "Greyfriars," in "The Newcomes," he described it as the
old school "where the colonel, and Clive, and I were brought up," and it was
here that, as a "poor brother," the old colonel had returned to spend the
evening of his gentle life, and, to quote Thackeray's pathetic lines, "when
the chapel bell began to toll, he lifted up his head a little, and said 'Adsum!'
It was the word we used at school when names were called."
This famous relic of old London, which
fortunately escaped the great fire in 1666, was formerly an old monastery
which Henry VIII. dissolved in 1537, and the house was given some few years
later to Sir Edward, afterwards Lord North, from whom the Duke of Norfolk
purchased it in 1565, and the handsome staircase, carved with terminal
figures and Renaissance ornament, was probably built either by Lord North or
his successor. The woodwork of the Great Hall, where the pensioners still
dine every day, is very rich, the fluted columns with Corinthian capitals,
the interlaced strap work, and other details of carved oak, are
characteristic of the best sixteenth century woodwork in England; the shield
bears the date of 1571. This was the year when the Duke of Norfolk, who was
afterwards beheaded, was released from the Tower on a kind of furlough, and
probably amused himself with the enrichment of his mansion, then called
Howard House. In the old Governors' room, formerly the drawing room of the
Howards, there is a specimen of the large wooden chimney piece of the end of
the sixteenth century, painted instead of carved. After the Duke of
Norfolk's death, the house was granted by the Crown to his son, the Earl of
Suffolk, who sold it in 1611 to the founder of the present hospital, Sir
Thomas Sutton, a citizen who was reputed to be one of the wealthiest of his
time, and some of the furniture given by him will be found noticed in the
chapter on the Jacobean period.
Dining Hall in the Charterhouse. Shewing Oak
Screen and front of Minstrels' Gallery, dated 1571. Period: Elizabethan.
Screen in the Hall of Gray's Inn. With Table
and Desks referred to.
There are in London other excellent examples
of Elizabethan oak carving. Amongst those easily accessible and valuable for
reference are the Hall of Gray's Inn, built in 1560, the second year of the
Queen's reign, and Middle Temple Hall, built in 1570-2. An illustration of
the carved screen supporting the Minstrels' Gallery in the older Hall is
given by permission of Mr. William R. Douthwaite, librarian of the "Inn,"
for whose work, "Gray's Inn, its History and Associations," it was specially
prepared. The interlaced strap work generally found in Elizabethan carving,
encircles the shafts of the columns as a decoration. The table in the centre
has also some low relief carving on the drawer front which forms its frieze,
but the straight and severe style of leg leads us to place its date at some
fifty years later than the Hall. The desk on the left, and the table on the
right, are probably later still. It may be mentioned here, too, that the
long table which stands at the opposite end of the Hall, on the daïs, said
to have been presented by Queen Elizabeth, is not of the design with which
the furniture of her reign is associated by experts; the heavy cabriole
legs, with bent knees, corresponding with the legs of the chairs (also on
the daïs), are of unmistakable Dutch origin, and, so far as the writer's
observations and investigations have gone, were introduced into England
about the time of William III.
The same remarks apply to a table in Middle
Temple Hall, also said to have been there during Elizabeth's time. Mr.
Douthwaite alludes to the rumour of the Queen's gift in his book, and
endeavoured to substantiate it from records at his command, but in vain. The
authorities at Middle Temple are also, so far as we have been able to
ascertain, without any documentary evidence to prove the claim of their
table to any greater age than the end of the seventeenth century.
The carved oak screen of Middle Temple Hall
is magnificent, and no one should miss seeing it. Terminal figures, fluted
columns, panels broken up into smaller divisions, and carved enrichments of
various devices, are all combined in a harmonious design, rich without being
overcrowded, and its effect is enhanced by the rich color given to it by
age, by the excellent proportions of the Hall, by the plain panelling of the
three other sides, and above all by the grand oak roof, which is certainly
one of the finest of its kind in England. Some of the tables and forms are
of much later date, but an interest attaches even to this furniture from the
fact of its having been made from oak grown close to the Hall; and as one of
the tables has a slab composed of an oak plank nearly thirty inches wide, we
can imagine what fine old trees once grew and flourished close to the now
busy Fleet Street, and the bustling Strand. There are frames, too, in Middle
Temple made from the oaken timbers which once formed the piles in the
Thames, on which rested "the Temple Stairs."
In Mr. Herbert's "Antiquities of the Courts
of Chancery," there are several facts of interest in connection with the
woodwork of Middle Temple. He mentions that the screen was paid for by
contributions from each bencher of twenty shillings, each barrister of ten
shillings, and every other member of six shillings and eightpence; that the
Hall was founded in 1562, and furnished ten years later, the screen being
put up in 1574: and that the memorials of some two hundred and fifty
"Readers" which decorate the otherwise plain oak panelling, date from 1597
to 1804, the year in which Mr. Herbert's book was published. Referring to
the furniture, he says:—"The massy oak tables and benches with which this
apartment was anciently furnished, still remain, and so may do for
centuries, unless violently destroyed, being of wonderful strength." Mr.
Herbert also mentions the masks and revels held in this famous Hall in the
time of Elizabeth: he also gives a list of quantities and prices of
materials used in the decoration of Gray's Inn Hall.
Three Carved Oak Panels. Now in the Court Room
of the Hall of the Carpenters' Company. Removed from the former Hall.
In the Hall of the Carpenters' Company, in
Throgmorton Avenue, are three curious carved oak panels, worth noticing
here, as they are of a date bringing them well into this period. They were
formerly in the old Hall, which escaped the Great Fire, and in the account
books of the Corporation is the following record of the cost of one of these
"Paide for a planke to carve the arms of
the Companie iijs."
"Paide to the Carver for carvinge the Arms
of the Companie xxiijs. iiijd."
The price of material (3s.) and workmanship
(23s. 4d.) was certainly not excessive. All three panels are in excellent
preservation, and the design of a harp, being a rebus of the Master's name,
is a quaint relic of old customs. Some other oak furniture, in the Hall of
this ancient Company, will be noticed in the following chapter. Mr. Jupp, a
former Clerk of the Company, has written an historical account of the
Carpenters, which contains many facts of interest. The office of King's
Carpenter or Surveyor, the powers of the Carpenters to search, examine, and
impose fines for inefficient work, and the trade disputes with the "Joyners,"
the Sawyers, and the "Woodmongers," are all entertaining reading, and throw
many side-lights on the woodwork of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Part of an Elizabethan Staircase.
The illustration of Hardwick Hall shews oak
panelling and decoration of a somewhat earlier, and also somewhat later time
than Elizabeth, while the carved oak chairs are of Jacobean style. At
Hardwick is still kept the historic chair in which it is said that William,
fourth Earl of Devonshire, sat when he and his friends compassed the
downfall of James II. In the curious little chapel hung with ancient
tapestry, and containing the original Bible and Prayer Book of Charles I.,
are other quaint chairs covered with cushions of sixteenth or early
seventeenth century needlework.
efore concluding the remarks on this period
of English woodwork and furniture, further mention should be made of
Penshurst Place, to which there has been already some reference in the
chapter on the period of the Middle Ages. It was here that Sir Philip Sydney
spent much of his time, and produced his best literary work, during the
period of his retirement when he had lost the favour of Elizabeth, and in
the room known as the "Queen's Room," illustrated on p. 89, some of the
furniture is of this period; the crystal chandeliers are said to have been
given by Leicester to his Royal Mistress, and some of the chairs and tables
were sent down by the Queen, and presented to Sir Henry Sydney (Philip's
father) when she stayed at Penshurst during one of her Royal progresses. The
room, with its vases and bowls of old oriental china and the contemporary
portraits on the walls, gives us a good idea of the very best effect that
was attainable with the material then available.
Richardson's "Studies" contains, amongst
other examples of furniture, and carved oak decorations of English
Renaissance, interiors of Little Charlton, East Sutton Place, Stockton
House, Wilts, Audley End, Essex, and the Great Hall, Crewe, with its
beautiful hall screens and famous carved "parloir," all notable mansions of
the sixteenth century.
To this period of English furniture belongs
the celebrated "Great Bed of Ware," of which there is an illustration. This
was formerly at the Saracen's Head at Ware, but has been removed to Rye
House, about two miles away. Shakespeare's allusion to it in the "Twelfth
Night" has identified the approximate date and gives the bed a character.
The following are the lines:—
"SIR TOBY BELCH.—And as many lies as shall
lie in thy sheet of paper, altho' the sheet were big enough for the Bed of
Ware in England, set em down, go about it."
Another illustration shows the chair which is
said to have belonged to William Shakespeare; it may or may not be the
actual one used by the poet, but it is most probably a genuine specimen of
about his time, though perhaps not made in England. There is a manuscript on
its back which states that it was known in 1769 as the Shakespeare Chair,
when Garrick borrowed it from its owner, Mr. James Bacon, of Barnet, and
since that time its history is well known. The carved ornament is in low
relief, and represents a rough idea of the dome of S. Marc and the Campanile
We have now briefly and roughly traced the
advance of what may be termed the flood-tide of Art from its birthplace in
Italy to France, the Netherlands, Spain, Germany, and England, and by
explanation and description, assisted by illustrations, have endeavoured to
shew how the Gothic of the latter part of the Middle Ages gave way before
the revival of classic forms and arabesque ornament, with the many details
and peculiarities characteristic of each different nationality which had
adopted the general change. During this period the bahut or chest has become
a cabinet with all its varieties; the simple prie dieu chair, as a
devotional piece of furniture, has been elaborated into almost an oratory,
and, as a domestic seat, into a dignified throne; tables have, towards the
end of the period, become more ornate, and made as solid pieces of
furniture, instead of the planks and tressels which we found when the
Renaissance commenced. Chimney pieces, which in the fourteenth century were
merely stone smoke shafts supported by corbels, have been replaced by
handsome carved oak erections, ornamenting the hall or room from floor to
ceiling, and the English livery cupboard, with its foreign contemporary the
buffet, is the forerunner of the sideboard of the future.
The Great Bed of Ware. Formerly at the
Saracen's Head, Ware, but now at Rye House, Broxbourne, Herts. Period:
Carved oak panelling has replaced the old
arras and ruder wood lining of an earlier time, and with the departure of
the old feudal customs and the indulgence in greater luxuries of the more
wealthy nobles and merchants in Italy, Flanders, France, Germany, Spain, and
England, we have the elegancies and grace with which Art, and increased
means of gratifying taste, enabled the sixteenth century virtuoso to adorn
The "Queen's Room," Penshurst Place. (Reproduced
from "Historic Houses of the United Kingdom" by permission of Messrs.
Cassell & Co., Limited.)
Carved Oak Chimney Piece in Speke Hall, Near
Liverpool. Period: Elizabethan.